Mulk Raj Anand

Mulk Raj Anand, by Howard Coster, half-plate film negative, 1930s, NPG x126819

Mulk Raj Anand

by Howard Coster
half-plate film negative, 1930s
NPG x126819

made available with an Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) licence

National Portrait Gallery © National Portrait Gallery

© National Portrait Gallery, London

Mulk Raj Anand


1905 Dec 12th


2004 Sep 28th


Authored By: Ryan Weberling

Edited By: Anna Mukamal, Helen Southworth

Mulk Raj Anand (12 Dec. 1905- 28 Sept. 2004) was a prolific novelist, critic, cultural historian, and political activist whose career spanned several tumultuous eras in Indian history and crossed divides between cultures, castes, and continents. Born in Peshawar, one of the oldest cities in south Asia (and now part of Pakistan), Anand was the son of a Kshatriya-caste military clerk, Lal Chand, and a pious peasant woman, Ishwar Kaur. As a child, Anand absorbed his father’s regimented lifestyle and his mother’s knowledge of local folklore and song, both of which contributed to his productivity and versatility as a writer. However, his parents’ adherence to tradition, their admiration for the British, and the combination of what Anand perceived to be their materialism and superficiality eventually propelled him toward new interests and ideas.

Anand attended cantonment schools and a regional university (Khalsa College at University of Punjab), both of which he excoriated in later essays and autobiographies for their quality and cultural attitudes. From a young age, Anand read widely in British, European, and south Asian literatures. He continued his self-directed and ambitious activities once at university, writing poetry in Urdu and encountering the political philosophies of Marx, Proudhon, Gandhi, Annie Besant, and others that would influence his student activism and later fiction. He was arrested for political activities multiple times during his university years, which strained his relationship with his father and interrupted his studies but brought him into contact with journalists in Bombay who published his first literary reviews. The tense balance between his own aspirations and what was expected of him by parents and local institutions could not hold. After a failed elopement with the sister of his college roommate (a married Muslim woman), Anand departed abruptly in September 1925 for England and what would be a transformative two decades abroad.

In London, Anand enrolled in University College London and completed his PhD in philosophy under the supervision of G. Dawes Hicks. His academic activities, though, were outpaced by his social and literary pursuits. He wrote hundreds of pages of autobiographical prose under the influence of a new love interest, aspiring artist Irene Rhys, with whom he toured the museums and bookstalls of Europe. Before long, he was drawn again into politics, with the 1926 General Strike prompting his renewed study of Marx and induction into London’s socialist networks, now with a growing sense of the global structures that linked England to his childhood home and to places around the world. Anand became acquainted with Leonard Woolf, E. M. Forster, and other intellectuals based around London's Bloomsbury neighborhood, in his spare time working to correct proofs for The Hogarth Press. Through friendships with Bonamy Dobrée and Herbert Read, he began writing short notes on books for T. S. Eliot’s Criterion magazine and published his first nonfiction monograph, Persian Painting (1930), as part of Faber & Faber's Criterion Miscellany series. With his formal studies behind him after 1929, Anand began to make a name for himself as a writer and critic, publishing “The Nightingale of India” (Indian Affairs, 1931), an essay on Indian poet and political leader Sarojini Naidu; Curries and Other Indian Dishes (Desmond Harmsworth, 1932), a well-received cookbook; The Golden Breath: Studies in Five Poets of the New India (John Murray, 1933), which continued his engagement with contemporary poets such as Naidu; The Hindu View of Art (Allen and Unwin, 1933), offered to counter mainstream British academic views; and a slim volume containing his first three pieces of published fiction, The Lost Child and Other Stories (privately printed, 1934).

A breakthrough came with the publication of Untouchable in 1935, after rejections from Jonathan Cape, The Bodley Head, Chatto and Windus, and a dozen other publishers on account of the manuscript’s portrayals of human excrement. Anand had written the novel in a long weekend in 1930, made minor changes over two years, and finally gained a new vision for his story about a low-caste street sweeper and latrine cleaner after visiting Gandhi (who recommended revising the book as a tract) and cleaning latrines himself in an ashram. The manuscript was accepted finally by radical publishers Lawrence and Wishart, with the support of poet Oswell Blakestone and a preface by E. M. Forster, but received disparaging first reviews due to its subject matter (the book was republished by Penguin Books in 1940 and went on to be translated into more than a dozen languages). Lawrence and Wishart released Anand’s next two novels, Coolie (1936) and Two Leaves and a Bud (1937), which continued his focus on the global working classes, but he signed with Jonathan Cape for his successful Lal Singh trilogy, comprised of The Village (1939), Across the Black Waters (1940), and The Sword and the Sickle (1941). In the same year that Untouchable was published, Anand co-founded the Progressive Writers’ Association, advancing his project of integrating literature and political activism (though he later split with the group’s India affiliate over his humanistic leanings and quibbles with Marxist orthodoxy). His political commitments took him briefly to the trenches of the Spanish Civil War in support of the anti-fascist Republicans, but he was moved to a journalistic post for three months and then left Madrid to tour India in support of the Republican cause. The Indian tour renewed Anand’s connections to prominent nationalist leaders and led to new leadership roles for him in Indian cultural organizations. He returned to London in 1939 intending to depart quickly back to India and continue his work there.

The German invasion of Poland interrupted Anand’s plans, and he shifted his attention to promoting Indian independence to the English public, all the while working as an adult education lecturer and winning a prestigious Leverhulme Fellowship to research Urdu literature. After initially declining an invitation to work for the B.B.C. Eastern Service, he was recruited a few months later by George Orwell, who insisted they could use the platform to combat fascism. A few months later, he saw the birth of his daughter, Sushila Rajani Kumari (died 2004), with Kathleen Van Gelder, a former actor and Communist he had married in 1938 but would divorce soon after the war. Meanwhile, his articles on India appeared in venues such as Fortnightly Review, Reynold’s Illustrated News, Tribune, The Listener, The New Statesman and Nation, Labour Monthly, and an anthology from the P.E.N. international writers’ symposium, Writers in Freedom (1942). Anand’s staunch advocacy of Indian independence gained the attention of the Labour Party, which tapped his friend and former employer, Leonard Woolf, to commission a book by Anand on the political situation in India. However, the case Anand presented in Letters on India (1942) proved too staunch for its sponsor; Woolf was asked to write a preface for the Labour Book Service edition distancing the Party from Anand’s position (the book’s publisher, George Routledge and Sons, also released an edition for the general public). Though Woolf and Anand exchanged polite letters about the preface, two of which comprise the book’s preface, Woolf’s taking of sides was condemned in a review by George Orwell and represented one of the many breaks in friendship Anand experienced during his final years in London.

After the war, Anand returned to India and settled in Bombay (now Mumbai). There in 1946 he founded Marg magazine, a review focused on the visual, architectural, and performing arts in India that remained under Anand’s editorship until the mid-1980s. His literary productivity continued unabated, especially through Bombay-based publishers including the Marg-affiliated house, Kutub-Popular. He followed his well-received novel Big Heart (Hutchinson, 1945) with Private Life of an Indian Prince (Hutchinson, 1953), the last of his novels to be published in England and a critical success. He then produced three unsuccessful novels during the 1960s; a selection of his short stories for Moscow, reflecting his growing ties with and occasional visits to the Soviet Union; and more than a half dozen collections of short stories, fables, and folk tales. His fictional works were accompanied by studies of or tributes to Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Rabindranath Tagore, T. S. Eliot, and E. M. Forster; a series of autobiographical works, including Apology for Heroism: An Essay in Search of Faith (Lindsay Drummond, 1946); and several volumes of a multi-part autobiographical novel, including Seven Summers (Hutchinson, 1951), Morning Face (Kutub-Popular, 1968), Confessions of a Lover (1976, Arnold-Heinemann), and The Bubble (Arnold-Heinemann, 1984).

In 1950, Anand married Shirin Vajifdar (1924-2017), an Indian classical dancer of Parsi descent who later contributed dance reviews and criticism to Marj magazine. In the late 1960s, in tandem with his autobiographical fiction, Anand drafted his recollections of the many prominent writers and intellectuals he had met in interwar London, and these were published as Conversations in Bloomsbury (Arnold-Heinemann, 1981). His political activism in these later years operated increasingly through academic and institutional channels, including university lectures, international conferences, and associations such as the World Peace Council, the Afro-Asian Writers’ Association, the Indian Council of Cultural Relations, and the UNESCO Dialogues of East and West. While still based out of Bombay, Anand spent much of his old age in Khandala, a hill-station outside of Bombay where he wrote and did charitable work with the poor. He died in 2004 near Pune, after a bout of pneumonia, and was widely eulogized in the Indian and British press.


Note: The following bibliography was adapted and expanded from B. P. Agrawal, “Mulk Raj Anand: A Study of Miseries, Struggles, and Splendors” (1978; Ravishankar University, PhD dissertation); P. K. Rajan, “Humanistic Ambivalence in the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A Dialectical Approach” (1990; University of Kerala, PhD dissertation); and “Mulk Raj Anand,” Making Britain Database (Open University, n.d.). Much archival research remains to be done on Anand’s life and work. A definitive biography is yet to be written, and the documentary record of his career spans personal, professional, and institutional relationships across several national contexts; connecting the Anglo-European and Indian halves of his career will be a particular challenge. However, a significant collection of material (approximately 88 boxes) was received by the Indian National Archives in the summer of 2016. The proposed reading room dedicated to these materials could enable a new wave of scholarship on Anand’s writing, criticism, personal life, and political activities.


Further Reading

Berman, Jessica. “Comparative Colonialisms: Joyce, Anand, and the Question of Engagement.” Modernist Commitments: Ethics, Politics, and Transnational Modernism. New York: Columbia UP, 2012. 90-138.

–––––. “Toward a Regional Cosmopolitanism: The Case of Mulk Raj Anand.” MFS; Modern Fiction Studies 55.1 (Spring 2009): 142-162.

Blair, Sara. “Local Modernity, Global Modernism: Bloomsbury and the Places of the Literary," ELH 71.3 (Fall 2004): 813-838.

Contemporary Indian Literature 5.11-12 (Nov.-Dec. 1965). Special Issues on Mulk Raj Anand.

Mohan, T. M. J. Indra, Ed. The Novels of Mulk Raj Anand: A New Critical Spectrum. New Delhi: Atlantic, 2005.

Kakatiya Journal of English Studies 2.1 (1977). Special Number on Mulk Raj Anand.

Gilman, Marvin. “MulkRaj Anand’s Critical Reception: A Reassessment.” Littcrit 42, 22.1 (1996): 58-69.

Lindsay, Jack. “Mulk Raj Anand: A Critical Essay.” Writers Today. Ed. Denys Val Baker. London: Sidgewick and Jackson,1948.

–––––. Mulk Raj Anand: A Critical Essay. Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1948.

–––––. The Elephant and the Lotus: A Study of the Novels of Mulk Raj Anand. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1965.

Naik, M. K. Mulk Raj Anand. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1973.

Nasta, Susheila. “Between Bloomsbury and Gandhi? The Background of the Publication of Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable.Books Without Borders, Vol. 2: Perspectives from Asisa. Ed. Robert Fraser and Mary Hammond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. 151-169.

Nasta, Susheia, Ed. India in Britain: South Asian Networks and Connections, 1858-1980. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.


Chishti, Seema. “Mulk Raj Anand Arrives at National Archives, Ready to Unpack in His Room.” The Indian Express (13 Jul. 2012).

Cowasjee, Saros. So Many Freedoms: A Study of the Major Fiction of Mulk Raj Anand. Bombay: Oxford UP, 1977.

“Mulk Raj Anand.” Making Britain Database. Ed. Susheila Nasta, Ellek Boehmer, and Ruvani Ranasinha. Open University, n.d.

Orwell, George. “Review of Letters on India by Mulk Raj Anand.” Tribune (19 Mar. 1943). Rpt. Orwell and Politics. Ed. Peter Davison. New York: Penguin, 2001. 173-176.

Perera, Sonali. No Country: Working-Class Writing in the Age of Globalization. New York: Columbia UP, 2014.

Sinha, Krishna Nandan. Mulk Raj Anand. Twayne’s World Author Series. No. 232. New York: Twayne, 1972.

Snaith, Anna. “The Hogarth Press and the Networks of Anti-Colonialism.” Leonard and Virginia Woolf, The Hogarth Press and the Networks of Modernism. Ed. Helen Southworth. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2010. 103-127.

Woolf, Leonard. “Introductions to Letters on India by Mulk Raj Anand with four letters between Leonard Woolf and Labour Book Service, copy of the introduction and letter from Leonard Woolf to the Editor of the Tribune attacking Orwell's review.” Leonard Woolf Papers, University of Sussex, England, SxMs-13/1/M/7/2.

Novels and Stories

Anand, Mulk Raj. The Lost Child and Other Stories. Printed Privately by Eric Gill. High Wycomb, Bucks, Piggots, 1934.

–––––. Untouchable. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1935.

–––––. Coolie. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1936.

–––––. Two Leaves and a Bud. London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1937.

–––––. Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts. Lucknow: Naya Sansar, 1938.

–––––. The Village. London: Jonathan Cape, 1939.

–––––. Across the Black Waters. London: Jonathan Cape, 1940.

–––––. The Sword and the Sickle. London: Jonathan Cape, 1942.

–––––. The Barber's Trade Union, and Other Stories. London: Jonathan Cape, 1944.

–––––. Big Heart. London: Hutchinson, 1945.

–––––. Indian Fairy Tales. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1946.

–––––. The Tractor and the Corn Goddess, and Other Stories. Bombay: Thacker, 1947.

–––––. Private Life of an Indian Prince. London: Hutchinson International Authors, 1953.

–––––. Reflections on the Golden Bed and Other Stories. Bombay: Current Book House, 1954.

–––––. Selected Stories. Moscow: Foreign Language Publishing House, 1954.

–––––. The Power of Darkness and Other Storie . Bombay: Jaico Publishing House, 1959.

–––––. Aesop’s Fables (Retold by Mulk Raj Anand). Bombay: Dhawale Popular, 1960.

–––––. The Old Woman and the Cow. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1960.

–––––. More Indian Fairy Tales (Retold by Mulk Raj Anand). Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1961.

–––––. The Road: A Novel. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1961.

–––––. Death of a Hero: Epitaph for Maqbool Sherwani: A Novel. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1963.

–––––. Lajwanti and Other Stories. Bombay: Jaico Publishing House, 1966.

–––––. Folk Tales of Punjab. New Delhi: Sterling, 1974.

–––––. Gauri. New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks, 1976.

–––––. Selected Short Stories of Mulk Raj Anand. Ed. M. K. Naik. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1977.

–––––. Nine Moods of Bharata: Novel of a Pilgrimage. New Delhi: Arnold Associates, 1988.

–––––. 'Things Have a Way of Working Out’... and Other Stories. New Delhi: Orient, 1998.


Essays and Nonfiction

Anand, Mulk Raj. Persian Painting. London: Faber & Faber, 1930.

–––––. “The Nightingale of India.” Indian Affairs 11.6 (1931): 24-25.

–––––. Curries and Other Indian Dishes. London: Desmond Harmsworth, 1932.

–––––. The Golden Breath: Studies in Five Poets of the New India. London: John Murray, 1933.

–––––. The Hindu View of Art . London: Allen & Unwin, 1933.

–––––. “Manifesto of the Indian Progressive Writers’ Association, London.” Left Review 5 (Feb. 1936).

–––––. “Anglo-Indian Literature.” Left Review 2.12 (Sept. 1936).

–––––. “The Censorship in India.” Bombay Chronicle (27 Dec. 1936).

–––––. “Homage to Spain.” Congress Socialist 2 (May-Sept. 1937).

–––––. The Indian Theatre. London: Dennis Dobson, 1940.

–––––. “English Novels of the Twentieth Century on India.” Asiatic Review 49 (July 1941): 244-251.

–––––. Letters on India. London: Labour Book Service; George Routledge & Sons, 1942.

–––––. “Mr. Eliot’s Kipling.” Life and Letters Today 32.55 (1942).

–––––. “Is It to be a Struggle in India?” The New Statesman and Nation 24 (1942).

–––––. “National Freedom in the U.S.S.R.” Labour Monthly 24 (1942).

–––––. “The Place of India.” Writers in Freedom. Ed. Herman Ould. London: Hutchinson, 1942.

–––––. “I Believe in Man.” In Search of Faith. Ed. Ernest W. Martin. London: Lindsay Drummon, 1943.

–––––. “Open Letter to a Chinese Guerilla.” Talking to India. Ed. George Orwell. London: Allen & Unwin, 1943.

–––––. “The Novel and Henry Miller.” Tribune (21 Jan. 1944).

–––––. Homage to Tagore. Lahore: Sangam Publishers, 1946.

–––––. On Education. Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1947.

–––––. The Bride’s Book of Beauty. With Krishna Hutheesing. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1947.

–––––. The King-Emperor's English; or, The Role of the English Language in the Free India. Bombay: Hind Kitabs, 1948.

–––––. Lines Written to an Indian Air: Essays. Bombay: Nalanda Publications, 1949.

–––––. The Story of Man. Amritsar and New Delhi: Sikh Publishing House, 1952.

–––––. The Story of India. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1954.

–––––. “The Continuity of Tradition.” Marg 9.1 (1955).

–––––. The Dancing Foot. Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, 1957.

–––––. India in Color. Photos by Suzanne Hausammann. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

–––––. Kama Kala: Some Notes on the Philosophical Basis of Hindu Erotic Sculpture. Geneva: Nagel Publishers, 1958.

–––––. “Prologomena to Contemporary Indian Painting.” Marg 12.1 (1958).

–––––. Homage to Khajuraho. With Stella Kramrisch. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1960.

–––––. “New Bearings in Indian Literature.” Literary Review, spec. issue on India (Summer 1961).

–––––. “Trends in the Novel.” Cultural Forum, spec. issue on Tagore (1961).

–––––. “Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore.” Marg 14.2 (1961).

–––––. “Is Indian Literature Sufficiently Indian?” United Asia 13.6 (1961).

–––––. “Creative Writing in the Present Crisis.” Indian Literature 1 (1963): 70-77.

–––––. Is There a Contemporary Indian Civilisation? London and Madras: Asia Publishing House, 1963.

–––––. The Third Eye: A Lecture on the Appreciation of Art. Chandigarh: U of Chandigarh, 1963.

–––––. “The Concept of an Asian Mind.” Contemporary Indian Literature 4 (1964).

–––––. “Jawaharlal Nehru.” Cultural Forum 1.4, spec. issue on Jawaharlal Nehru (Nov. 1964).

–––––. “Letter to E.M. Forster.” E.M. Forster: A Tribute. Ed. K. Natwar Singh. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964.

–––––. “East West Dialogue.” Indian Writers in Conference. Ed. Nizim Ezekiel. Bombay: P.E.N. All India Centre, 1964.

–––––. The Story of Chacha Nehur. Bombay: Rajpal & Sons, 1965.

–––––. “What Shakespeare Means to Me.” Contemporary Indian Literature 5.11-12 (1965).

–––––. “How I Become a Writer.” Contemporary Indian Literature 11-12 (Nov.-Dec. 1965): 13-15.

–––––. “A Note on Modern Indian Fiction.” Indian Literature 2.1 (1965): 44-57.

–––––. “Requiem for Mr. Eliot. T. S. Eliot: Homage From India. Ed. P. Lal. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1965.

–––––. “Kipling and Forster.” Quest 47 (1965): 68-75.

–––––. “Is Universal Criticism Possible?” Literary Criticism: European and Indian Traditions. Ed. C. D. Narasimhaiah. Mysore: U of Mysore Press, 1966.

–––––. “The Role of Creative Writers and Artists in the Developing Countries of Afro-Asia.” Afro-Asia and World Affairs 3.1 (1966).

–––––. “The One and the Many: Some Changing Social Patterns of New India.” United Asia 18.1 (Jan.-Feb. 1966).

–––––. The Volcano: Some Comments on the Development of Rabindranath Tagore’s Aesthetic Theories and Practice. Baroda: M.S. University, 1967.

–––––. Khajuraho. Bombay: Marg, 1968.

–––––. A Day in the Life of Maya of Mohenjo-Daro. New Delhi: Children’s Book Trust, 1968.

–––––. “Folk Tradition as an Aid to Modern Expression.” Indo-Asian Culture 17.3 (1968).

–––––. “Conversation with Mahatma Gandhi.” Mahatma Gandhi: One Hundred Years. Ed. S. Radhakrishnan. New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1968.

–––––. “The Question of Modernity.” Modernity and Contemporary Indian Literature. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1968.

–––––. “I Believe…” The Illustrated Weekly of India 90.53 (1969).

–––––. “Profile of E. M. Forster.” The Literary Half-Yearly 10.2 (1969).

–––––. “Old Myths and New Myths: Recital Versus Novel.” The Banasthali Patrika 5.13 (1969). Rpt. Indian Literature of the Past Fifty Years. Ed. C. D. Narasimhaiah. Mysore: U of Mysore P, 1970.

–––––. The Humanism of M. K. Gandhi. Chandigarh: U of Chandigarh, 1967.

–––––. “Anglo-Saxon Attitudes: Twentieth Century English Fiction about India.” The Image of India in Western Creative Writing. Ed. M.K. Naik, S.K. Desai, and Kallapur. Dharwar: Karnatak UP, 1971.

–––––. Roots and Flowers: Two Lectures on the Metamorphosis of Technique and Content in the Indian-English Novel. Dharwar: Karnatak UP, 1972.

–––––. “The Changeling—An Indo-Anglian Novelist’s Credo.” Indian and Foreign Review 9.23 (1972).

–––––. “Tradition and Innovation.” Lotus (Jan. 1972).

–––––. “‘What Price Red Book, Comrade?’: Open Letter to Mao.” Blitz (12 Feb. 1972).

–––––. Between Tears and Laughter. New Delhi: Sterling, 1973.

–––––. “Macaulay’s Vociferous Logic.” Indian and Foreign Review 10.24 (Oct. 1973).

–––––. “Obscenity and Sex.” Aspects of Indian Literature: The Changing Pattern. Ed. Suresh Kohli. Delhi: Vikas, 1975.

–––––. Tantra Magic. With Ajit Mookerjee. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1976.

–––––. The Humanism of Jawaharlal Nehru. Calcutta: Visva-Bharati, 1978.

–––––. The Humanism of Rabindranath Tagore: Three Lectures. Aurangabad Murathwada University, 1978.

–––––. Seven Little Known Birds of the Inner Eye. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1978.

–––––. “The Search for National Identity in India.” The Cultural Self-Comprehension of Nations.  Ed. Hans Köchler. Tübingen: Horst Erdmann Verlag, 1978. 73-98.

–––––. “Pigeon Irish and Pigeon Indian.” Commonwealth Quarterly 3.10 (Mar. 1979).

–––––. “Content and Form in Untouchable and Kanthapura.Littcritt 14 (June 1982): 47-60.

–––––. “Poetry and Courage: Three Poets of Renaissance,” “Politics and the Intelligentsia,” “Resistance to Evil,”  and “Let’s Look Forward.” Indian Renaissance. Ed. K. Ayyappa Paniker. Delhi: Sterling, 1983.

–––––. Poet-Painter: Paintings by Rabindranath Tagore. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1985.

–––––. “Reflections of a Novelist: Some Notes on the Novel.” Indian Readings in Commonwealth Literature. Ed. G.S. Amur et al. New Delhi: Sterling, 1985.

–––––. “New Year’s Thoughts 1-1-1986” and “The Sources of Protest in My Novels.” Contemporary Indian Fiction in English. Ed. K. Ayyappa Paniker. Trivandrum: U of Kerala Institute of English, n.d.

–––––. Caliban and Gandhi: Letters to "Bapu" from Bombay. New Delhi: Arnold, 1991.

–––––. Reflections on a White Elephant. New Delhi: Har-Anand, 2002.

Anand, Mulk Raj, Ed. Marx and Engels on India. Allahabad: Socialist Book Club, 1939.

–––––. The Story of the Indian Post Office. New Delhi: Post & Telegraphs Department, 1954.


Autobiographical Works and Letters

Anand, Mulk Raj. Apology for Heroism: An Essay in Search of Faith. London: Lindsay Drummond, 1946.

–––––. Seven Summers: The Story of an Indian Childhood. London: Hutchinson, 1951.

–––––. Morning Face. A Novel. Bombay: Kutub-Popular, 1968.

–––––. Author to Critic: The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand. Ed. Saros Cowasjee. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1973.

–––––. The Letters of Mulk Raj Anand. Ed. Saros Cowasjee. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1974.

–––––. Confessions of a Lover. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1976.

–––––. Conversations in Bloomsbury. London: Wildwood House, 1981; Delhi: Arnold Heinemann, 1981.

–––––. The Bubble. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1984.

–––––. Autobiography, Vol. 1: Pilpali Sahb – Story of a Childhood Under the Raj. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann, 1985.

–––––. Pilpali Sahab: The Story of a Big Ego in a Small Boy. London: Aspect, 1990.

–––––. Old Myth and New Myth: Letters from Mulk Raj Anand to K. V. S. Murti. Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1991.

–––––. Anand to Atma: Letters of Mulk Raj Anand. Ed. by Atma Ram.  Calcutta: Writers Workshop, 1994.

–––––. “Self Obituary.” 1969/1999. The Tribune [India]. 12 Dec. 2004.